School Implementation Questionnaire-Abbreviated

The School Implementation Questionnaire – Abbreviated (SIQA) is based on the School Implementation Questionnaire – Revised (SIQR), developed by Emmons, Haynes, Cook, and Comer (1995) to gauge the extent to which schools are implementing the structures and principles of the School Development Program (SDP).

The SIQA is used as a tool to document the process of SDP implementation, including validation of the SDP Life Cycle (Joyner, 2004), and to examine the relationship between the extent and quality of implementation and school-related factors such as school climate, student attendance, and student achievement.

Staff and team members respond on a five-point Likert scale rating their perceptions of the implementation of specific program components. Respondents are asked to indicate the extent to which specific SDP components exist in the school. The response choices range from “Not at all” to “A great deal” for some choices; and from “Never” to “Always” or “Completely” for others. The choices are coded from 1 to 5 for the purpose of analysis. The “don’t know” option is not used in the calculation of the variable means.

The SIQA Variables

The SIQA consists of nine factors or variables. They are:

  • Comprehensive School Plan (CSP) Effectiveness
  • School Planning and Management Team (SPMT) Effectiveness
  • SPMT Practice of SDP Guiding Principles
  • Student and Staff Support Team (SSST) Effectiveness
  • SSST Practice of SDP Guiding Principles
  • Parent Team (PT) Effectiveness
  • Parent Team Practice of SDP Guiding Principles
  • Inclusiveness
  • Curriculum Developmental Focus.

All variables are scored in the positive direction; the higher the score of the variable, the greater the amount of that quality that respondents perceive to be present in the school. The highest possible variable mean is 5.0 and the lowest possible is 1.0.

For example, if a school scores 4.6 on SPMT Effectiveness, this means that respondents for that school strongly believe that the SPMT has been instrumental in developing and monitoring the implementation of the school plans, enlisting parents and other adults in the school to participate in school-based activities, and generally has a positive effect on life in the school.

The mean score for each variable is the person’s average score across the items that define that variable. For example, Inclusiveness is composed of six items. A mean score for Inclusiveness is computed by adding the scores of all six items and dividing the result by 6. However, if a person responds to only three of the six items, that person’s scores on the three items are added together and divided by 3. This is done to make the most use of the data.

In some cases, participants feel that they do not have enough information to rate the items, and therefore respond “don’t know.” A "don’t know” response is not used in calculating the mean score. Table 1 lists the school implementation variables and their definitions.

Interpreting the SIQA Variables Results

For our current purposes, we have decided that a score of 4.0 or above indicates a high level of implementation for that variable. A score ranging from 3.0 to 3.99 indicates moderate implementation, and a score of 2.99 or below shows low implementation. A score of 4.7 and above suggests exemplary implementation on that variable. The highest possible score is 5.00 and the lowest possible score is 1.00.


  • Emmons, C., Haynes, N., Cook T. & Comer J. P. (1995). School Implementation Questionnaire Revised. Yale University School Development Program, New Haven, CT
  • Joyner, E. T. (2004). “The School Development Program Implementation Life Cycle: A guide for planned change,” In E. Joyner, M. Ben-Avie, & J. Comer (Eds.), Transforming school leadership and management to support student learning and development (pp. 191-201). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.